Economic activity and reproductive behavior in Poland
Marta Szklarska, Cracow University of Economics
Poland is a country with one of the lowest fertility rates in Europe. Many researchers have attempted to explain the reasons for this situation. In the literature the situation on the labor market is considered as one of the determinants of low fertility - difficulties in finding work, job insecurity, high expectations of employers to employees. Young people can postpone decision about the parenthood in order to get a better education, find a job and establish position in the labor market. Studies on impact of economic activity on the reproductive behavior give ambiguous results, depending on the country. Differentiation is related to the situation on the labor market (employment, wages), institutional support, and division of roles in the family. In countries with high wages, unemployment of one parent does not have to limit fertility (e.g. Denmark). In countries with a relatively low-wage effects of unemployment may contribute to postponing births (e.g. Spain, P. Baizan, 2004). The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic activity of both partners on the chances of having first child in Poland. The analysis includes socio-economic characteristics of both partners such as education level and labor market status (employed, unemployed, economically inactive). The following hypothesis are tested: (1) Employment of both partners increases the chances of having a first child; (2) Male unemployment has a negative impact on fertility; (3) Impact of female unemployment on fertility varies according to place of residence and level of education. To verify presented hypotheses logistic model was used. The data for Polish population come from the Social Diagnosis 2000-2013.
Presented in Poster Session 1